Anaestamine 100 Mg/Ml Solution For Injection
Issued: October 2014
1. NAME OF THE VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCT
Anaestamine 100 mg/ml solution for injection
Aniketam, 100 mg/ml solution for injection (EE/LT/LV)
Aniketam vet., 100 mg/ml solution for injection (NO, SE, DK, IS)
2. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPOSITION
Composition per ml:
Ketamine 100 mg
(equivalent to 115.33 mg ketamine hydrochloride)
Chlorocresol 1 mg
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
3. PHARMACEUTICAL FORM
Solution for injection
Clear, colourless aqueous solution.
4. CLINICAL PARTICULARS
4.1 Target species
Dogs, cats, cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, rats, mice.
4.2 Indications for use, specifying the target species
The product may be used in combination with a sedative for:
- General anaesthesia
Do not use in
animals presenting with:
- severe hypertension,
- cardio-respiratory deficiency,
- hepatic or renal dysfunction.
Do not use in animals with glaucoma.
Do not use in animals with eclampsia or pre-eclampsia.
Do not use in cases of hypersensitivity to the active substance or any of the excipients.
Do not use the product as a sole anaesthetic agent in any of the target species.
Do not use in ocular surgical interventions.
4.4 Special warnings for each target species
For very painful and major surgical interventions, as well as for maintenance of anaesthesia, a combination with injectable or inhalation anaesthetics is necessary. As muscle relaxation required for surgical procedures cannot be achieved with ketamine alone, additional muscle-relaxants should be used concomitantly. For improvement of anaesthesia or prolongation of effect ketamine can be combined with α2-receptor- agonists, anaesthetics, neuroleptanalgesics, tranquilizers and inhalational anaesthetic agents
4.5 Special precautions for use
Special precautions for use in animals
A small proportion of animals have been reported to be unresponsive to ketamine as an anaesthetic agent at normal dosages. Use of premedicants should be followed by a suitable reduction in dosage.
In the cat and dog, the eyes remain open and the pupils dilated. The eyes may be protected by covering with a damp gauze swab or using appropriate ointments.
Ketamine may exhibit pro-convulsant and anti-convulsant properties, and therefore should be used with care in patients with seizure disorders.
Ketamine may increase intracranial pressure and therefore, may not be suitable for patients with cerebrovascular insults.
When used in combination with other products, consult the contraindications and warnings that appear on the relevant data sheets.
The eyelid reflex stays intact.
Twitching, as well as excitation upon recovery, may be possible. It is important that both premedication and recovery should occur in quiet and calm surroundings. To ensure a smooth recovery appropriate analgesia and premedication should be administered, if indicated.
The concomitant use of other pre-anaesthetics or anaesthetics should be subject to a benefit/risk assessment, taking into account the composition of the used medicines and their doses and the nature of the intervention. The recommended doses of ketamine are likely to vary depending on the concomitant pre-anaesthetics and anaesthetics used.
administration of an anticholinergic such as atropine or
glycopyrrolate to prevent the occurrence of adverse effects,
especially hypersalivation, may be considered after a benefit/risk
assessment by the veterinarian.
Special precautions to be taken by the person administering the veterinary medicinal product to animals
This is a potent drug. Particular care should be taken to avoid accidental self-administration.
People with known hypersensitivity to ketamine or any of the excipients should avoid contact with the veterinary medicinal product.
Avoid contact with the skin and eyes. Wash any splashes from skin and eyes immediately with large amounts of water.
Adverse effects on the foetus cannot be excluded. Pregnant women should avoid handling the product.
In case of accidental self-injection or if symptoms occur after ocular/oral contact, seek medical advice immediately and show the package leaflet or the label to the physician, but DO NOT DRIVE.
Advice to doctors:
Do not leave patient unattended. Maintain airways and give symptomatic and supportive treatment.
4.6 Adverse reactions (frequency and seriousness)
Ketamine may cause salivation in cats.
Ketamine causes an increased tonus of skeletal muscles. Ketamine causes a dose-related respiratory depression, which may lead to respiratory arrest particularly in cats. Combination with respiratory depressant products may increase this respiratory effect.
Ketamine increases the heart rate and increases arterial blood pressure with concurrent increased bleeding tendency.
In cats and dogs eyes remain opened with mydriasis and nystagmus.
Emergence reactions - ataxia, hypersensitivity to stimuli, excitation – may occur during recovery.
There may be some pain on intramuscular injection.
4.7 Use during pregnancy and lactation
Ketamine passes the blood placenta barrier very well to enter the fetal blood circulation in which 75 to 100 % of the maternal blood levels can be reached. This partially anesthetizes neonates delivered by caesarean section.The safety of the veterinary medicinal product has not been established during pregnancy and lactation. Use only accordingly to the benefit/risk assessment by the responsible veterinarian.
4.8 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction
Neuroleptics, tranquillisers, cimetidine and chloramphenicol potentiate ketamine anaesthesia.
Barbiturates, opiates and diazepam may prolong the recovery time.
Effects may be potentiated. A decrease of the dose of one or both agents may be necessary.
There is a possibility of an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia when ketamine is used in combination with thiopental or halothane. Halothane prolongs the half-life of ketamine.
simultaneous intravenous administration of a spasmolytic agent may
provoke a collapse.
Theophylline, when given with ketamine, may provoke an increase of epileptic crises.
When detomidine is used together with ketamine, the recovery is slower than when ketamine is used alone.
4.9 Amounts to be administered and administration route
For intravenous and intramuscular administration.
In laboratory animals, the intraperitoneal route can also be used. Ketamine should be combined with a sedative.
One dose of 10 mg of ketamine per kg bodyweight corresponds to 0.1 ml of a 100 mg/ml solution per kg bodyweight.
Ketamine can show large inter-individual variation in effect, and therefore dose rates administered should be tailored to the individual animal, dependent on factors such as age, condition, and the depth and duration of anaesthesia required.
Before ketamine is administered, please ensure that the animals are adequately sedated.
Combination with xylazine or medetomidine
Xylazine (1.1 mg/kg IM) or medetomidine (10 to 30 µg/kg IM) can be used with Ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg i.e. 0.5 to 1 ml/10 kg IM) for short term anesthesia of 25 to 40 min. The ketamine dose can be adjusted, depending on the desired duration of surgery.
Combination with xylazine
Xylazine (0.5 to 1.1 mg/kg IM) with or without atropine is administered 20 min before ketamine (11 to 22 mg/kg IM i.e. 0.11 to 0.22 ml/kg IM).
Combination with medetomidine
Medetomidine (10 to 80 µg/kg IM) can be combined with ketamine (2.5 to7.5 mg/kg IM i.e 0.025 to 0.075ml/kg IM). The dose of ketamine should be reduced as the dose of medetomidine increases.
Combination with detomidine:
Detomidine 20 µg/kg IV, after 5 minutes ketamine 2.2 mg/kg fast IV (2.2 ml/100 kg IV)
Onset of action is gradual, taking approximately 1 minute to attain recumbency, with duration of anaesthetic effect lasting approximately 10 - 15 minutes.
Combination with xylazine:
Xylazine 1.1 mg/kg IV, followed by ketamine 2.2 mg/kg IV (2.2 ml/100 kg IV)
Onset of action is gradual, taking approximately 1 minute, with duration of anaesthetic effect being variable and lasting 10 - 30 minutes but usually less than 20 minutes.
After injection the horse lays down spontaneously without any further help. If a distinct muscle relaxation is required simultaneously, muscle relaxants can be administered to the recumbent animal, until the horse shows first symptoms of relaxation.
Combination with xylazine:
Adult cattle can be anesthetized for short periods with xylazine (0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg IV) followed by ketamine (2 mg/kg IV i.e. 2 ml/100kg IV). The lower dose of xylazine is used when cattle weigh more than 600 kg. Anesthesia Iasts approximately 30 min but can be pro-longed for 15 min with additional ketamine (0.75 to 1.25 mg/kg IV i.e. 0.75 to 1.25 ml/100kg IV).
Ketamine 7.5 to 22 mg/kg IV i.e. 0.75 to 2.2 ml/10kg IV depending on the sedative used.
Ketamine 11 to 22 mg/kg IM i.e. 1.1 to 2.2 ml/10kg IM depending on the sedative used.
Combination with azaperone:
Ketamine 15 - 20 mg/kg IM (1.5 - 2 ml/10 kg) and 2 mg/kg azaperone IM.
In 4 – 5 month old pigs, following administration of 2 mg/kg azaperone and 20 mg/kg ketamine IM, the onset of anaesthesia took on average 29 minutes and duration of effect lasted about 27 minutes.
Combination with xylazine
Rabbits: xylazine (5-10 mg/kg IM) + ketamine (35-50 mg/kg IM i.e. 0.35 to 0.50 ml/kg IM)
Rats: xylazine (5-10 mg/kg IP, IM) + ketamine (40-80 mg/kg IP, IM i.e. 0.4-0.8 ml/kg IP, IM)
Mice: xylazine (7.5-16 mg/kg IP) + ketamine (90-100 mg/kg IP i.e. 0.9 to 1.0 ml/kg IP)
Guinea pigs:xylazine (0.1 to 5 mg/kg IM) + ketamine (30-80 mg/kg IM i.e. 0.3 to 0.8 ml/kg IM)
Hamster: xylazine (5 to 10 mg/kg IP) + ketamine (50 to 200 mg/kg IP i.e. 0.5 to 2 ml/kg IP)
Dose for maintenance of anaesthesia:
When needed prolongation of effect is possible by repeated administration of an optionally reduced initial dose.
The vial can be broached up to 20 times. The user should choose the most appropriate vial size according to the target species to be treated and the administration route.
4.10 Overdose (symptoms, emergency procedures, antidotes), if necessary
In case of overdose cardiac arrhythmia and respiratory depression up to paralysis may occur. If necessary, suitable artificial aids to maintain ventilation and cardiac output should be used until sufficient detoxification has taken place. Pharmacological cardiac stimulants are not recommended, unless no other supportive measures are available.
4.11 Withdrawal period(s)
sheep, goats and horses:
Meat and offal : 1 day.
Milk : zero days.
Meat and offal : 1 day.
5. PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Pharmacotherapeutic group: anaesthetics.
ATCvet code: QN01AX03.
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic agent. Ketamine induces a state of catalepsy with amnesia and analgesia; muscle tone is maintained including the pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes. The heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac output are increased; respiratory depression is not a noticeable feature. All these characteristics may be modified if the product is used in combination with other agents.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic particulars
Ketamine is distributed rapidly. Distribution to tissues is variable with highest concentrations found in the liver and kidneys. Plasma protein binding is approximately 50%. Hepatic metabolism varies between species: for example, ketamine undergoes extensive hepatic biotransformation in dogs and horses, but the majority of the drug is excreted via the kidneys in cats. Recovery from ketamine anaesthesia after an intravenous bolus occurs by rapid redistribution from the CNS to other tissues, primarily fat, lung, liver and kidney
6. PHARMACEUTICAL PARTICULARS
6.1 List of excipients
Sodium hydroxide (for pH adjustment)
Water for injections
Due to a chemical incompatibility, do not mix barbiturates or diazepam with ketamine in the same syringe.
The product must not be mixed with other veterinary medicinal products, with the exception of the infusion fluids 0.9% sodium chloride, Ringers solution and lactated Ringers solution.
6.3 Shelf life
Shelf-life of the veterinary medicinal product packaged for sale: 3 years.
Shelf-life after first opening the immediate packaging: 28 days.
6.4. Special precautions for storage
Store the vial in the original packaging in order to protect from light. Store the vial upright.
6.5 Nature and composition of immediate packaging
10 ml, 30 ml and 50 ml clear type I glass vials closed with a bromobutyl rubber stopper and aluminium cap in a carton box containing 10 ml, 25 ml and 50 ml product, respectively.
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
6.6 Special precautions for the disposal of unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from the use of such products
Any unused veterinary medicinal product or waste materials derived from such veterinary medicinal products should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
7. MARKETING AUTHORISATION HOLDER
Name: Le Vet Beheer B.V.
Address: Wilgenweg 7
3421 TV Oudewater
8. MARKETING AUTHORISATION NUMBER
9. DATE OF FIRST AUTHORISATION
21 October 2014
10. DATE OF REVISION OF THE TEXT
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