Alenvona 150/30micrograms Film-Coated Tablets
Alenvona 150/30micrograms Film-coated Tablets
Each film-coated tablet contains 150 micrograms of desogestrel and 30 micrograms of ethinylestradiol.
Excipients with known effect: Lactose monohydrate 55 mg, soybean oil (maximum
For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.
White, round film-coated tablets of 5.00 mm diameter. They are marked “C” on one side and “7” on the reverse side.
The decision to prescribe Alenvona should take into consideration the individual woman’s current risk factors, particularly those for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and how the risk of VTE with Alenvona compares with other CHCs (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).
Route of administration: oral use.
The tablets must be taken every day at about the same time, if necessary with a little liquid, in the order shown on the blister pack. One tablet is to be taken daily for 21 consecutive days. Each subsequent pack is started after a 7-day tablet-free interval,
during which time a withdrawal bleed usually occurs. This usually starts on day 2-3 after the last tablet and may not have finished before the next pack is started.
The safety and efficacy of desogestrel and ethinylestradiol in adolescents below 18 years has not yet been established. No data are available.
• No preceding hormonal contraceptive use (in the past month)
Tablet-taking has to start on day 1 of the woman’s natural cycle (i.e. the first day of her menstrual bleeding). Starting on day 2-5 is allowed, but during the first cycle, a barrier method is recommended in addition for the first 7 days of tablet-taking.
• Changing from another combined hormonal contraceptive (combined oral contraceptive (COC), vaginal ring, or transdermal patch):
The woman should start with Alenvona preferably on the day after the last active tablet (the last tablet containing the active substances) of her previous COC, but at the latest on the day following the usual tablet-free or placebo tablet interval of her previous COC.
In case a vaginal ring or a transdermal patch has been used, the woman should start using Alenvona preferably on the day of removal, but at the latest when the next application would have been due.
• Changing from a progestogen-only method (progestogen only-pill, injection, implant) or from a progestogen-releasing intrauterine system (IUS)
The woman may switch any day from the progestogen-only pill (from an implant or the IUS on the day of its removal, from an injectable when the next injection would be due) but should in all of these cases be advised to additionally use a barrier method for the first 7 days of tablet-taking.
• Following first-trimester abortion
The woman may start immediately. When doing so, she need not take additional contraceptive measures.
• Following delivery or second-trimester abortion
Women should be advised to start at day 21 to 28 after delivery or second-trimester abortion. When starting later, the woman should be advised to additionally use a barrier method for the first 7 days. However if intercourse has already occurred, pregnancy should be excluded before the actual start of COC use or the woman has to wait for her first menstrual period.
For breastfeeding women see section 4.6.
If the user is less than 12 hours late in taking any tablet, contraceptive protection is not reduced. The woman should take the tablet as soon as she remembers and should take further tablets at the usual time.
If she is more than 12 hours late in taking any tablet, contraceptive protection may be reduced. The management of missed tablets can be guided by the following two basic rules:
1. tablet-taking must never be discontinued for longer than 7 days.
2. 7 days of uninterrupted tablet-taking are required to attain adequate suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-axis.
Accordingly, the following advice can be given in daily practice:
• Week 1
The user should take the last missed tablet as soon as she remembers, even if this means that she has to take 2 tablets at the same time. She then continues to take tablets at her usual time. In addition, a barrier method such as a condom should be used for the next 7 days. If intercourse took place in the preceding 7 days, the possibility of a pregnancy should be considered. The more tablets are missed and the closer they are to the regular tablet-free interval, the higher the risk of a pregnancy.
• Week 2
The user should take the last missed tablet as soon as she remembers, even if this means taking 2 tablets at the same time. She then continues to take tablets at her usual time. Provided that the woman has taken her tablets correctly in the 7 days preceding the first missed tablet, there is no need to use extra contraceptive precautions. However, if she has missed more than 1 tablet, the woman should be advised to use extra precautions for 7 days.
• Week 3
The risk of reduced reliability is imminent because of the forth coming 7-day tablet-free interval. However, by adjusting the tablet-intake schedule, reduced contraceptive protection can still be prevented. By adhering to either of the following two options, there is therefore no need to use extra contraceptive precautions, provided that in the 7 days preceding the first missed tablet the woman has taken all tablets correctly. If this is not the case, she should follow the first of these two options and use extra precautions for the next 7 days as well.
1. The user should take the last missed tablet as soon as she remembers, even if this means taking 2 tablets at the same time. She then continues to take tablets at her usual time. The next blister pack must be started as soon as the current blister pack is finished, i.e., no gap should be left between packs. The user is unlikely to have a withdrawal bleed until the end of the second pack, but she may experience spotting or breakthrough bleeding on tablet-taking days.
2. The woman may also be advised to discontinue tablet-taking from the current blister pack. She should then have a tablet-free interval of up to 7 days, including the days she missed tablets, and subsequently continue with the next blister pack.
If the woman missed tablets and subsequently has no withdrawal bleed in the first normal tablet-free interval, the possibility of a pregnancy should be considered.
In case of severe gastro-intestinal disturbances (e.g., vomiting or diarrhoea), absorption may not be complete and additional contraceptive measures should be taken. If vomiting occurs within 3-4 hours after tablet-taking, a new (replacement) tablet should be taken as soon as possible. The new tablet should be taken within 12 hours of the usual time of tablet-taking if possible. If more than 12 hours elapse, the advice concerning missed tablets, as given in section 4.2. “Management of missed tablets”, is applicable. If the woman does not want to change her normal tablet-taking schedule, she has to take the extra tablet(s) from another pack.
To delay a period the woman should continue with another blister pack of Alenvona without a tablet-free interval.The extension can be carried on for as long as wished until the end of the second pack. During the extension, the woman may experience breakthrough-bleeding or spotting. Regular intake of Alenvona is then resumed after the usual 7-day tablet-free interval.
To shift her periods to another day of the week than the woman is used to with her current scheme, she can be advised to shorten her forthcoming tablet-free interval by as many days as she likes. The shorter the interval, the higher the risk that she does not have a withdrawal bleed and will experience breakthrough-bleeding and spotting during the subsequent pack (just as when delaying a period).
Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) should not be used in the presence any of the conditions listed below. Should any of the conditions appear for the first time during COC use, the product should be stopped immediately.
• Presence or history of venous thrombosis (deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism).
• Presence or history of arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident) or prodromal conditions (e.g. transient ischemic attack, angina pectoris).
• Known predisposition for venous or arterial thrombosis, such as Activated Protein C (APC) resistance, antithrombin-III-deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and antiphospholipid antibodies (anticardiolipin-antibodies lupus anticoagulant).
• Recent severe or history of recurrent migraine both with focal neurological symptoms (see section 4.4).
• The presence of a severe or multiple risk factor(s) for venous or arterial thrombosis may also constitute a contraindication (see section 4.4.):
- Diabetes mellitus with vascular involvement
- severe hypertension
- severe dyslipoproteinemia
• Pancreatitis or a history thereof if associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia.
• Presence or history of severe hepatic disease as long as liver function values have not returned to normal.
• Presence or history of liver tumours (benign or malignant).
• Known or suspected sex steroid-influenced malignancies (e.g. of the genital organs or the breasts)
• Endometrial hyperplasia.
• Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding.
• Hypersensitivity to any of the active substances of Alenvona or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.
• If you are allergic to peanut or soya.
If one of the conditions/risk factors mentioned below is present, the benefits of COC use should be weighed against the possible risks for each individual woman and discussed with the woman before she decides to start using it. In the event of aggravation, exacerbation or first appearance of any of these conditions or risk factors, the woman should contact her physician. The physician should then decide on whether COC use should be discontinued.
• The use of any combined oral contraceptive carries an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared with no use. The incidence of VTE is considered to be 5-10 per 100,000 women years in non-OC users.
• The excess risk of VTE is highest during the first year a woman ever uses a combined oral contraceptive. The risk of VTE associated with pregnancy is estimated as 60 cases per 100,000 pregnancies. VTE is fatal in 1-2% of cases.
• In several epidemiological studies it has been found that women using combined oral contraceptives with ethinylestradiol, mostly with a dose of 30pg, and a progestin such as desogestrel have an increased risk of VTE compared with those using combined oral contraceptives containing less than 50 pg of ethinylestradiol and progestin levonorgestrel.
• For brands containing 30 pg ethinylestradiol combined with desogestrel or gestodene compared with those containing less than 50 pg ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel, the overall relative risk of VTE has been estimated to range between 1.5 and 2.0. The incidence of VTE for levonorgestrel containing combined oral contraceptives with less than 50 pg of ethinylestradiol is approximately 20 cases per 100,000 women-years of use. For Alenvona the incidence is approximately 30-40 cases per 100,000 women-years of use: i.e. additional 10-20 cases per 100,000 women-years of use. The impact of the relative risk on the number of additional cases would be greatest in women during
the first year they ever use a combined oral contraceptive when the risk for VTE with all combined oral contraceptives is highest.
The risk of venous thromboembolism increases with:
- increasing age;
- a positive family history (i.e. venous thromboembolism ever in a sibling or parent at a relatively early age). If a hereditary predisposition is suspected, the woman should be referred to a specialist for advice before deciding about any hormonal contraceptive use;
- obesity (body mass index over 30 kg/m2);
- prolonged immobilization, major surgery, any surgery to the legs, or major trauma. In these situations it is advisable to discontinue COC use (in the case of elective surgery at least four weeks in advance) and not resume until two weeks after complete remobilization and possibly also with superficial thrombophlebitis and varicose veins. Antithrombotic treatment should be considered if the pills have not been discontinued in advance. There is no consensus about the possible role of these conditions in the etiology of venous thromboembolism.
The use of COCs in general has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke, a risk that is strongly influenced by the presence of other risk factors (e.g. smoking, high blood pressure, and age) (see also below). These events occur rarely. It has not been studied how Alenvona modifies the risk of AMI.
The risk of arterial thromboembolic complications increases with:
- increasing age;
- smoking (with heavier smoking and increasing age the risk further increases, especially in women over 35 years of age);
- obesity (body mass index over 30 kg/m2);
- valvular heart disease;
- atrial fibrillation;
- a positive family history (i.e. arterial thromboembosis ever in a sibling or parent at a relatively early age). If a hereditary predisposition is suspected, the woman should be referred to a specialist for advice before deciding about any hormonal contraceptive use.
Extremely rarely, thrombosis has been reported to occur in other blood vessels, like e.g. hepatic, mesenteric, renal or retinal veins and arteries, in COC users. There is no consensus as to whether the occurrence of these events is associated with the use of COCs.
The presence of one serious risk factor or multiple risk factors for venous or arterial disease, respectively, can also constitute a contra-indication. The possibility of anticoagulant therapy should also be taken into account. COC users should be specifically pointed out to contact their physician in case of possible symptoms of thrombosis. In case of suspected or confirmed thrombosis, COC use should be discontinued. Adequate alternative contraception should be initiated because of the teratogenicity of anticoagulant therapy (coumarins).
Symptoms of venous or arterial thrombosis can include:
- unilateral leg pain and/or swelling;
- sudden severe pain in the chest, whether or not it radiates to the left arm;
- sudden breathlessness;
- sudden onset of coughing;
- any unusual, severe prolonged headache;
- sudden partial or complete loss of vision;
- diplopia; slurred speech or aphasia;
- collapse with or without focal seizure; weakness or very marked numbness suddenly affecting one side or one part of the body;
- motor disturbances;
- “acute” abdomen.
Occurrence of one or more of these symptoms may be a reason for immediate discontinuation of Alenvona usage.
Other medical conditions which have been associated with adverse circulatory events include diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, haemolytic uremic syndrome, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis) and sickle cell disease.
The increased risk of thromboembolism in the puerperium must be considered (for information on “Pregnancy and Lactation” see Section 4.6).
An increase in frequency or severity of migraine during COC use (which may be prodromal of a cerebrovascular event) may be a reason for immediate discontinuation of the COC.
• Epidemiological studies indicate that the long-term use (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives displays a risk factor for the development of cervical cancer in women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). However, there is still uncertainty about the extent to which this finding is influenced by confounding effects (e.g. differences in number of sexual partners or in use of barrier contraceptives).
• A meta-analysis from 54 epidemiological studies reported that there is a slightly increased relative risk (RR = 1.24) of having breast cancer diagnosed in women who are currently using COCs. The excess risk gradually disappears during the course of the 10 years after cessation of COC use. Because breast cancer is rare in women under 40 years of age, the excess number of breast cancer diagnoses in current and recent COC users is small in relation to the overall risk of breast cancer. These studies do not provide evidence for causation. The observed pattern of increased risk may be due to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer in COC users, the biological effects of COCs or a combination of both. The breast cancers diagnosed in ever-users tend to be less advanced clinically than the cancers diagnosed in never-users.
• In rare cases, benign liver tumours, and even more rarely, malignant liver tumours have been reported in users of COCs. In isolated cases, these tumours have led to life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhages. A hepatic tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis when severe upper abdominal pain, liver enlargement or signs of intra-abdominal haemorrhage occur in women taking COCs.
• With the use of the higher-dosed COCs (50 pg ethinylestradiol) the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer is reduced. Whether this also applies to lower-dosed COCs remains to be confirmed.
• Women with hypertriglyceridaemia, or a family history thereof, may be at an increased risk of pancreatitis when using COCs.
• Although small increases in blood pressure have been reported in many women taking COCs, clinically relevant increases are rare. A systematic relationship between COC use and clinical hypertension has not been established. However, if a sustained clinically significant hypertension develops during the use of a COC then it is prudent for the physician to withdraw the COC and treat the hypertension. Where considered appropriate, COC use may be resumed if normotensive values can be achieved with antihypertensive therapy.
• The following conditions have been reported to occur or deteriorate with both pregnancy and COC use, but the evidence of an association with COC use is inconclusive: jaundice and/or pruritis related to cholestasis; gallstone formation; porphyria; systemic lupus erythematosus; haemolytic uraemic syndrome; Sydenham’s chorea; herpes gestationis; otosclerosis-related hearing loss; (hereditary) angioedema.
• Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of COC use until markers of liver function return to normal. Recurrence of cholestatic jaundice and/or cholestasis-related pruritis which occurred first during pregnancy or previous use of sex steroids necessitates the discontinuation of COCs.
• Although COCs may have an effect on peripheral insulin resistance and glucose tolerance, there is no evidence for a need to alter the therapeutic regimen in diabetics using COCs (containing <0.05 mg ethinylestradiol). However, diabetic women should be carefully observed while taking COCs.
• Worsening of endogenous depression, of epilepsy, of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis has been reported during COC use.
• Chloasma may occasionally occur, especially in women with a history of chloasma gravidarum. Women with a tendency to chloasma should avoid exposure to the sun or ultraviolet radiation whilst taking COCs.
• Alenvona contains 55 mg lactose per tablet. Patients with rare hereditary problems of galactose intolerance, the Lapp lactase deficiency or glucose-galactose malabsorption who are on lactose-free diet should take this amount into consideration.
When counselling the choice of contraceptive method(s), all the above information should be taken into account.
Prior to the initiation or reinstitution of Alenvona a complete medical history (including family history) should be taken and pregnancy must be ruled out. Blood pressure should be measured and if clinically indicated a physical examination should be performed, guided by the contra-indications (section 4.3) and warnings (section 4.4). The woman should also be instructed to carefully read the user leaflet and to adhere to the advice given. The frequency and nature of further periodic checks should be based on established practice guidelines and be adapted to the individual woman.
Women should be advised that oral contraceptives do not protect against HIV infections (AIDS) and other sexually transmissible diseases.
The efficacy of COCs may be reduced in the event of e.g., missed tablets (Section 4.2.), gastro-intestinal disturbances (Section 4.2) or concomitant medication (Section 4.5).
Herbal preparations containing St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) should not be used while taking Alenvona due to the risk of decreased plasma concentrations and reduced clinical effects of Alenvona (see Section 4.5 Interactions with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction).
With all COCs, irregular bleeding (spotting or breakthrough bleeding) may occur, especially during the first months of use. Therefore, the evaluation of any irregular bleeding is only meaningful after an adaptation interval of about three cycles.
If bleeding irregularities persist or occur after previous regular cycles, then nonhormonal causes should be considered and adequate diagnostic measures are indicated to exclude malignancy or pregnancy. These may include curettage.
In some women withdrawal bleeding may not occur during the tablet-free interval. If the COC has been taken according to the directions described in Section 4.2, it is unlikely that the woman is pregnant. However, if the COC has not been taken according to the directions prior to the first missed withdrawal bleed or if two withdrawal bleeds are missed, pregnancy must be ruled out before COC use is continued.
Note: The prescribing information of concomitant medications should be consulted to identify potential interactions.
Influence of other medical products on Alenvona
Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or oral contraceptive failure. The following interactions have been reported in the literature:
Interactions can occur with drugs that induce microsomal enzymes, which can result in increased clearance of sex hormones (e.g., hydantoins, barbiturates, primidone, bosentan, carbamazepine, rifampicin, rifabutin, and possibly also oxcarbazepine, modafinil, topiramate, felbamate, ritonavir, griseofulvin and products containing St John's wort). Also HIV protease inhibitors with an inducing potential (e.g. ritonavir and nelfinavir) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g. nevirapine and efavirenz), may affect hepatic metabolism. Maximal enzyme induction is generally not seen for 2-3 weeks but may then be sustained for at least 4 weeks after the cessation of drug therapy.
Interference with the enterohepatic circulation
Contraceptive failures have also been reported with antibiotics, such as ampicillin and tetracyclines. The mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated.
Women on treatment with any of the above-mentioned classes of medicinal products, besides rifampicin should temporarily use a barrier method in addition to the COC, i.e. during the time of concomitant medicinal product administration and for 7 days after their discontinuation.
For women on rifampicin, the barrier method should be used during the time of concomitant drug administration and for 28 days after their discontinuation.
In case of long-term treatment with microsomal enzyme-inducing drugs another method of contraception is recommended.
If concomitant medicinal product administration runs beyond the end of the tablets in the COC pack, the next COC pack should be started without the usual tablet free interval.
Oral contraceptives may affect the metabolism of other drugs. Accordingly, plasma and tissue concentrations may either increase (e.g. cyclosporin) or decrease (e.g. lamotrigine).
The use of contraceptive steroids may influence the results of certain laboratory tests, including biochemical parameters of liver, thyroid, adrenal and renal function, plasma levels of (carrier) proteins, e.g. corticosteroid binding globulin and lipid/lipoprotein fractions, parameters of carbohydrate metabolism and parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Changes usually remain within the normal laboratory reference values.
Alenvona is not indicated during pregnancy. If pregnancy occurs during treatment with Alenvona further intake should be stopped. However, most epidemiological studies have revealed neither an increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who used COCs prior to pregnancy, nor a teratogenic effect when COCs were taken inadvertently during early pregnancy.
The increased risk of VTE during the postpartum period should be considered when re-starting Alenvona (see section 4.2 and 4.4)
Lactation may be influenced by COCs as they may reduce the quantity and change the composition of breast milk. Therefore, the use of COCs should generally not be recommended until the nursing mother has completely weaned her child. Small amounts of the contraceptive steroids and/or their metabolites may be excreted with the milk. These amounts may affect the child.
No studies on the effects on the ability to drive and use machines have been performed. No effects on ability to drive and use machines have been observed in users of COCs.
For serious adverse effects in users of COCs see section 4.4.
The following adverse drug reactions have been reported during use of Alenvona:
£1/1,000 to <1/10)
Immune system disorders
Nervous system disorders
Contact lens intolerance
Abdominal pain Vomiting
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
Reproductive system and breast disorders
Vaginal discharge Breast discharge
General disorders and administration site conditions
Description of selected adverse reactions
A number of undesirable effects have been reported in women using combined oral contraceptives, which are discussed in more detail in section 4.4 Special Warnings and Precautions for Use. These include:
- An increased risk of arterial and venous thrombotic and thrombo-embolic events, including myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attacks, venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism;
- Hormone-dependent tumours (e.g. liver tumours, breast cancer);
- Occurrence or deterioration of conditions for which an association with COC use is not conclusive: Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, epilepsy, endometriosis, uterine myoma, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, gestational herpes gestationis, Sydenham’s chorea, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, cholestatic jaundice;
- Acute or chronic disturbances of liver function may necessitate the discontinuation of COC use until markers of liver function return to normal.
- In women with hereditary angioedema exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema.
The frequency of diagnosis of breast cancer is very slightly increased among OC users. As breast cancer is rare in women under 40 years of age the excess number is small in relation to the overall risk of breast cancer. Causation with COC use is unknown. For further information, see sections 4.3. and 4.4.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the national reporting system via the internet at Yellow Card Scheme, Website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.
There have been no reports of serious, harmful effects after overdose.
On the basis of general experience with combined oral contraceptives, symptoms that may possible occur in this case are: nausea, vomiting and, in young girls, slight vaginal bleeding. There are no antidotes, and further treatment should be symptomatic.
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Progestogens and estrogens, fixed combinations ATC Code: G03A A09.
The contraceptive effect of COCs is based on interaction of various factors, the most important of which are seen as the inhibition of ovulation and changes in the cervical secretion.
Alenvona is a COC with ethinylestradiol and the progestogen desogestrel. Ethinylestradiol is a well known synthetic estrogen.
Desogestrel is a synthetic progestogen. After oral administration it has a strong ovulation-inhibiting activity.
In the largest multicenter trial (n=23 258 cycles), the uncorrected Pearl Index is estimated at 0.1 (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.3). Furthermore, 4.5% of the women reported absence of withdrawal bleeding and 9.2% reported occurrence of irregular bleeding after 6 treatment cycles.
No clinical data on efficacy and safety are available in adolescents below 18 years."
After oral administration of Alenvona, desogestrel is rapidly absorbed and converted into 3-keto-desogestrel. Peak plasma levers of approx. 2 ng/ml are reached at about
1.5 hours after a single dose administration. The absolute bioavailability of 3-keto-desogestrel is 62-81 %.
3-keto-desogestrel is bound to serum albumin and SHBG. The ethinyl-oestradiol-induced increase in SHBG influences both the amount of bindings and distribution of 3-keto-desogestrel in the plasma proteins. As a consequence the concentration of 3-keto-desogestrel rises slowly during treatment until steady state is reached within 313 days.
The phase-I metabolism of desogestrel includes cytochrom P-450 catalysed hydroxylation and subsequent dehydrogenation at C3. The active metabolite of 3-keto-desogestrel is further reduced, the degradation products are conjugated to sulphate and glucuronides. Animal studies indicate that the enterohepatic circulation has no relevance for the gestagenic activity of desogestrel.
3-keto-desogestrel is eliminated with a mean half-life of approx. 31 hours (24-38 hours), plasma clearance varies from 5.0-9.5 l/hour. Desogestrel and its metabolites are eliminated via the urine and in the faeces, either as free steroids or conjugates. Ratio for elimination in urine or faeces is 1.5:1.
In steady-state conditions the serum level of 3-keto-desogestrel is elevated by two- to threefold.
Ethinylestradiol is rapidly absorbed and peak plasma levels of about 80 pg/ml are reached after 1.5 hours after a single dose administration. As a consecuence of presystemic conjugation and first-pass metabolism the absolute bioavailability is 60%. The area under the curve and Cmax may be expected to rise slightly over time.
Ethinylestradiol is 98.8% bound to the plasma proteins, almost exclusive to albumin.
Ethinylestradiol undergoes presystemic conjugation both in the mucosa of the small intestine and in the liver. Hydrolysis of the direct conjugates of ethinylestradiol with the aid of the intestinal flora gives ethinylestradiol, which can be re-absorbed, and an enterohepatic circulation in hereby set up. The primary pathway of ehinylestradiol metabolism is cytocrom P-450-mediated hydroxylation in which the primary metabolites are 2-OH-EE and 2-methoxy-EE. 2-OH-EE is further metabolized to chemically reactive metabolites.
Ethinylestradiol disappears from plasma with a half-life of approx. 29 hours (26-33 hours), plasma clearance varies from 10-30 l/hour. The conjugates of ethinylestradiol and its metabolites are excreted via urine and faces (ratio 1:1).
Steady state conditions are obtained after 3 to 4 days, when the serum drug level is approx. 30 to 40% higher than after the administration of a single dose.
Toxicological studies have not revealed other effects than those, which can be explained, based on the hormone profile of Alenvona.
Lactose monohydrate Maize starch Povidone K-30 (E1201) RRR-Alpha-tocopherol (E307) Soybean oil
Silica colloidal hydrated (E551) Silica colloidal anhydrous (E551) Stearic acid (E570)
Hypromellose 2910 (E464) Triacetin (E1518)
Polysorbate 80 Titanium dioxide (E171)
Do not store above 30°C. Store in the original package in order to protect from light.
Blisters of aluminium push-thru foil and clear to slight opaque PVC/PVDC film. The blister packs may come with a blister holder.
1 x 21 film-coated tablets 3 x 21 film-coated tablets
6 x 21 film-coated tablets
Not all pack sizes may be marketed.
Any unused medicinal product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.
Actavis Group PTC ehf.
Reykjavikurvegi 76-78 220 Hafnarfjordur Iceland